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Full text of "Indians at work"


AT WORK 



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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT DF THE INTERIOR 
OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS ■ - WASHINGTON, D.C. 



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INDIANS AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF OCTOBER 1938 

Volume VI Number 2 

Pfige 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Apaches Of Fort Apache, Arizona, Vote Over- 
whelmingly For Constitution John Collier 3 

Reorganization News 3 

Indian Service Schools: Their Aims - And 

Some Results Willard W. Beatty 4 

Aids To Higher Education For Indian Young 

People Paul L . Fickinger 8 

What Shall We Teach Indian High School 

Children? 9 

Cover Photograph 12 

The Place Of A Navajo Day School In The 

Communi ty Earle F . Jenkins 13 

The Little Red Schoolhouse: What Children 

Five To Nine Can Do Ruth E. Leichliter 16 

Student Ranchers: The Oglala High School 

Cattle Project 21 

Phoenix Tractor School 25 

Little Herder In The Spring 26 

Stories And Drawings 31 

Excerpts From " Our Molly Book" 32 

Excerpts From "Our Health Book" 33 

A Pima Child's Story Elsie Pablo 33 

Making Brooms 34 

Excerpts From "The Little Red Schoolhouse 

News " 35 

From The "Atka Seagull" 37 

From The Second And Third Grades, Standing 

Rock Community School 38 

News Items From Number 16 Day School, Pine 

Ri dge , South Dakota 39 

Nal-Ka-Chu-Sak Tom Pircheralrea Prince . 40 

My Family History , James and Nadie Ironmaker 42 

From The Rocky Boy ' s Reservation In Montana , . 43 

An Eskimo Scene , As Drawn By George Ahgupuk 44 

Student's Mural Depicts Old-Time Sioux 

Gathering 45 

The News From Medicine Bow Day School And 

Potato Creek Community 46 

Spring Work On The Navajo Zeth Bigman 46 

Children's Stories From Southeastern Alaska 47 

From Navajo Children At Toadlena, N. M 48 

Ute Children Learn Range Management 

Principles First-Hand 49 

The Practice Cottage Plan Frances Clifford 50 





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VOLUME VI • OCTOBER. 1938 - NUMBER 2 * 



Education, always, is a field of forces where two in- 
finities act and react . One of these infinities is the "abysmal 
deep of personality") the other is the world - the very ancient, 
yet swiftly-changing world. So, although the teacher and the pupil 
may not know it, education is or could be the greatest of all events. 

If we look s.t Indians, we can see how the task of educa- 
tion throbs with challenge. First, Indians possess a traditional 
intimate heritage richer, probably, than any other in our country. 
Second, Indians face the need of adjusting to the world - of winning 
the world - to a unexampled degree. The inward and the outward calls 
of education are, in the case of Indians, unmistakable, urgent, and 
profound. 

Education, of course, does not mean only the classroom or 
only the school as an institution. But the classroom and the school 
are tremendously important in education. They are the more impor- 
tant in those cases where they are the more effectively united with 
the flow of life around them. 

Most Indian communities, or those groups of communities 
called tribes, are whole worlds in themselves, socially and econom- 
ically speaking. They are worlds now embarked upon change - grop- 
ing their way into a future which has to be partly unknown. They 
are replicas of the greet world which is changing as they are chang- 
ing and groping as they are groping. 



But because of the statistical smallness of these Indian 
communities, the interdependence of the school and society is more 
evident than usually in the white world. 

These Indian societies are changing internally, and in 
inter-action with the greater society around them. And the indi- 
vidual Indian is changing through his inter-play with his own com- 
munity and the wider world. 

Many of the Indian heritages are feeing brought into 
stronger consciousness and better usefulness; and many of the world 
heritages of science, art, religion, and economic and political 
method, are being brought effectively into Indian experience for 
the first time. 

The whole picture is one of very exciting potentialities; 
and many of the potentialities are being made real through practice, 
in the highly diversified Indian educational enterprise. 

Read Mr. Beatty's article immediately following. It sug- 
gests a good deal of the diversity and of the concrete achievement 
of Indian education. 



After nearly four years, I revisited last month an Indian 
community - it was the Swinomish Community, on the ocean side, in 
the state of Washington. 

Four years ago, this community lived in the most dolorous 
of slums; it had very little hope; it possessed neither organization 
nor program. 

The change has been a marvelous one. Now the tribe is 
delightfully housed. Gardens are beginning to flower around the at- 
tractive homes. The tribe earns $20,000 a year from its fishing en- 
terprise, and all of the net income is "plowed back" into capital. 
Soon the tribe will move into the enterprise of a cooperative cannery. 
The community hall, now finished, is spacious and beautiful. A great 
totem pole crowns the 'village, and near its summit is a portrait of 
President Roosevelt. Totem poles record events of Indian history. 

The tribe governs itself with a business-like wisdom, deal- 
ing with the near and the far, and manifesting an ardor of good feel- 
ing which makes one very wistful when he thinks about numerous city, 
state and county governments among the white people. 

With the changed status and outlook of the Indian people, 
a splendid improvement of Indian-white relations has taken place. 



The improved relationships are doing good both ways, and ooth 
elements know it. 

At Tulalip, in Washington, I found the tribal council 
proceeding with a wisdom equal to that of the Swinomish council- 
And the neighboring white people would exert themselves as earnest- 
ly as the Indians, if need should arise, to keep these almost mil- 
ennial gains which the Indians have won for themselves and for the 
larger community around them. 



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U*j2^>—. 



Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



APACHES OF FORT APACHE , ARIZONA . VOTE OVERWHELMINGLY FOR CONSTITUTIO N 

The Apaches ere making big records of self-help, self- 
guidance, wise economic and social action, as organized tribes under 
the Reorganization Act. 

Last among the Apache reservations to work upon tribal or- 
ganization has been the White River (Fort Apache) Reservation in 
Arizona. Impressive was the vote, and impressive the vote for or- 
ganization, on August 15, 1938. Of the tribe's 1,375 eligibles, 
more than 1,000 voted. Of the total votes, 884 were cast in favor 
of the constitution. 

J. C. 



BEORGANIZATION NEWS 

Charters ; 

Yes No 

August 10 Uintah & Ouray Indians of Utah 213 

August 17 Pine Ridge Indians of South Dakota . . . 766 14u0 

Constitution s 

August 15 White River Apache (Fort Apache) 

Ari zona 884 128 



INDIAN SIR VICE SCHOOLS ; THEIB AIMS - AND SOME RESULTS 
By Willard W. Beatty, Director of Education - Indian Service 



The United States Indian Service has a unique education- 
al opportunity. It enrolls almost 40,000 children in 350 schools, 
ranging from Point Barrow, Alaska, to Brighton, Florida. Its 
schools range from one-room day schools offering eight grades of 
instruction to vocational high schools of 700 students. Its prob- 
lems are probably more diverse than those of any other school sys- 
tem in the United States. It is responsible for the education of 
children from families in which the English language has never been 
spoken and to whom a railroad train, an elevator or a boat are un- 
known; children from homes where the women have been forbidden for 
centuries to communicate with white people; children whose only dif- 
ference from their white neighbors lies in the fact that they are 
economically less fortunate. Some of our children will inherit val- 
uable agricultural land, others will possess an interest in rich 
grazing lands; others will inherit an art and craft tradition which 
is ancient and sacred; and still others will come to us dispossessed 
of lands, culture, and racial self-respect. No single pattern of 
education will adequately meet the needs of these diverse groups. 
Least of all can we assume that the traditional pattern of American 
public education will be suitable to their training. 

The teachers of the Indian Service face an arduous task - 
that of developing programs of education which will conserve the 
original background of native culture where it exists, reestablish 
pride and self-respect where it has been destroyed, train students 
in the knowledges and skills necessary to exploit effectively their 
native resources, develop in children the techniques necessary to 
economic self-support in areas where they possess nothing but the 
skill of their hands and the keenness of their minds, and introduce 
these children to an economic and cultural understanding of their 
white neighbors and associates. The educational program which will 
accomplish these things on the Navajo Reservation must of necessity 
be a very different program from that offered in Eastern Oklahoma, 
Southern Arizona, or South Dakota. 

The Indian Service has the advantage that while it is co- 
operating closely with the public schools of the states in which it 
operates, it is in no case subject to the courses of study required 
by the public schools of these states. Our problem is distinct and 
we are under no necessity of conforming to educational patterns 
drafted in disregard to the situations with which we are confronted. 



In addition to tbe fact that the Indian Service school is 
called upon to meet the peculiar needs of Indian youth, it has an 
added obligation to the adults within the Indian communities in lit- 
erally hundreds of instances- These adults may not speak the Eng- 
lish language, may have no clear understanding of the rapidly chang- 
ing relationships between the Indian and his government under the 
influence of the Indian Reorganization Act, and are confronted with 
rapidly changing economic conditions and the need to learn new ways 
in which to develop economic independence. In some of our areas the 
school must supplement the gaps in the environment . In lands of 
little rain, it must provide the water source and the facilities for 
bathing and laundry work. In lands of limited timber it must provide 
the place and the tools with which the adult Indian may maintain and 
repair his equipment and the centers to which the Indian women may 
come for many of their activities. In isolated communities the school 
may be the only source of first-aid, simple medical assistance, or 
the interpretation of the members of one culture to those of another. 

While the problem is unique and challenging, it finds most 
of us relatively unprepared and we who have this opportunity have, in 
large majority of instances, been trained in the same schools and 
colleges that are producing teachers for the traditional American 
public schools. In a variety of ways, those in administrative charge 
of the education division of the Indian Service are attempting to in- 
terpret to the staff its opportunities, and the means of realizing 
them. 

While the obstacles at times seem insuperable, the progress 
which has been made by individual teachers and the staffs of larger 
schools throughout the Service is inspiring. Doubtless, no individ- 
uals, no institutions, axe today realizing their potentialities to 
the full. Jobs which are being well done can be improved upon. 
While frankly fumbling with the problem, many institutions present 
examples of the possibilities which are ahead of us when more of us 
see more clearly what needs to be done. Despite the danger of mis- 
understanding which is inevitable when individual achievements are 
cited, it is believed that our ultimate goals may be more clearly 
seen in terms of what has already been accomplished than through 
many pages of theorizing. To this end, a few citations are offered 
at random: 

(l) The school at Nome, Alaska, where, in addition to a 
program of elementary education for children, native men and women 
axe making continuous use of the school facilities. The native 
parka, or skin coat of the Eskimo, has been redesigned, shortened, 
equipped with a zipper front, and turned into one of the most effec- 
tive winter garments for sports wear, yet produced for cold-weather 
use. Fifty native women have been employed continuously in the hand 



manufacture of these garments and it has proved impossible to satisfy 
the growing demand. From the experimental nucleus at Nome, this ac- 
tivity is being spread through the Eskimo schools to improve the 
economic well-being of the native in the more effective utilization 
of his native products, and the children being educated in the Alaskan 
schools are being trained to continue and develop this work. 

(2) Oglala Community High School at Pine Ridge, South 
Dakota, serving an area where cattle raising and community irrigated 
gardens are the economic future, has built its instructional work 
around a herd of more than 800 beef cattle. All of the manifold ac- 
tivities connected with the care of the herd are carried on by the 
high school students who are also equipped to drill wells, operate 
gasoline-driven machinery, and develop and operate irrigation proj- 
ects. The school cattle program has stimulated thirty young adults 
to form a cooperative livestock association around a nucleus of re- 
imbursable or repayment cattle. 

(3) Sequoyah Training School in Oklahoma, where research 
has been carried forward in the pottery of the Cherokee, a craft 
which has been long abandoned by the Oklahoma division of the tribe. 
Gradually, with ercheological specimens as an inspiration, Cherokee 
boys and girls are developing a new waterproof pottery which is 
both beautiful and useful. 

(4) Chilocco Agricultural School in Oklahoma., where high 
school students, among other things, are operating an eight-thousand- 
acre farm in such a manner that each student in the agricultural 
course at graduation has operated a typical diversified Oklahoma 
farm and has made his living at the job. 

(5) Fort Sill School in Oklahoma, where the children from 
the first grade through the high school are engaged in agriculture, 
and the beginning class operates, a five-acre farm from which it 

produces and preserves enough food to supply its own noonday meals 
throughout the year, applying the farming experiences toward a 
mastery of speaking English, reading and number. Here, the junior 
high school students operate a farm cooperative in which each has a 
personal financial interest and from which each is making money. 
And here the students of the senior high echool, almost all of whom 
own or have access to agricultural land, are prepared through actual 
experience to operate their own land as successful self-supporting 
farmers. 

(6) Grass Mountain Day School on the Rosebud Reservation 
in South Dakota, where the school is the center of a community ir- 
rigated garden project which has transformed a group of Indians, made 
indigent by the depression and the drought, into an active self-sup- 
porting and self-respect ins community. 



(7) Sherman Institute, Riverside, California, where the 
shop boys furnished most of the professional labor which has pro- 
duced a new five^unit reinforced concrete shop building, which ex- 
perience along with the other practical trade training has resulted 
in the placement of fifty-three per cent of the 1938 graduates who 
did not return to their home reservations in well-paid positions in 
the industries in and around Los Angeles. 

(8) Wingate, New Mexico, where the agriculture boys have 
shared in the planning and development of one of the most effective 
soil and water conservation and irrigated agricultural projects in 
the entire Southwest, as practical training for reproducing these 
same practices within tneir home areas on the Navajo Reservation. 

(9) Cherokee, North Carolina, where the applied science 
work has produced boys and girls competent to test the purity of 
their native water supply, the bacterial count of the milk supply, 
and in a dozen ways make additional use of the native resources of ' 
their area, which for years have been neglected. 

(10) Salem Indian School, Chemawa, Oregon, where a group 
of boys have put the rich beaver bottom land owned by the school 
into vegetable gardens which have brought returns that have paid an 
ample rental on the land, covered all out-of-pocket costs, and 
brought better cash returns than day wages. 

(11) Santa Fe School, New Mexico, where the work of the 
Navajo silversmiths has directly contributed to a marked improvement 
in the quality of silver jewelry being commercially produced on the 
Navajo Reservation. 

(12) Phoenix Indian School, Arizona, in whose tractor and 
diesel school young Indian men are being trained in the practical 
operation, maintenance, and repair of modern machinery and road e- 
quipment, so well that trainees' services are in growing demand. 

I have named twelve. I could have named three times that 
many. My ears already burn, for I can hear Haskell Institute in 
Kansas, with its steadily improving secretarial course; Flandreau 
South Dakota, with its industrial arts students who are finding 
jobs on home reservations and in urban communities; Sacaton, Ari- 
zona, with its poultry project and irrigated farm; Pine Ridge day 
schools with their goats and turkeys; Cheyenne River and Standing 
Rock, with their irrigated gardens; Turtle Mountain, North Dakota, 
with its pottery and finger weaving; Jones Academy, Oklahoma, with 
its farm program; and Wheelock Academy, with its contribution to 
the Choctaw spinning project; and dozens of other schools which are 
making concrete contributions to these Indian school objectives, 



inquiring why they aren't publicly recognized. The answer is two- 
fold; first, there isn't enough space to list all of the projects 
which are actively dealing with reality; second, many projects 
which, while potentially significant, have so far failed to come 
to grips with the fundamental problem of providing children still 
in school with experiences so real, so vital, so practical, that 
they constitute a valid preparation for life success. 

Many of our schools and teachers are struggling to free 
themselves from the fundamental weakness of the average school 
which believes that books constitute the sole materials of educa- 
tion. None of the schools cited above have wholly overcome that 
handicap, but they are schools which have made substantial progress 
in supplementing book-learning with realistic experiences. They 
are named simply in hope that to the extent to which they have suc- 
ceeded they may offer inspiration to others who are already moving 
in the same direction, but who have not yet arrived. If this cita- 
tion serves to promote critical jealousy, rather than helpful stim- 
ulation, it would have better remained unprinted. 

This issue of "Indians At Work" is devoted to products of 
Indian schools, to illustrate in another area, their accomplishments 
Here also, the pictures reproduced, the stories of accomplishment 
or the samples of children's writing are offered merely as an indi- 
cation of direction - not as exhaustive evidence of achievement. 



AIDS TO HIGHER EDUCATION FOR INDIAN YOUNG PEOPLE 
By Paul L. Fickinger, Associate Director of Education 



Several years ago Congress made available to the Indian 
Service a fund to enable us to help capable Indian young people 
attend colleges and advanced trade schools. For the most part 
these funds are reimbursable and are loaned to cover payment of 
tuition and living expenses during a given period of study. 

Graduates of Indian Service schools are accepted in col- 
leges on the same basis as those from schools for whites. At the 
present time there axe approximately 600 Indian boys and girls re- 
ceiving post-high school training. Some of them are preparing for 
a specific position in the Indian Service; many of them, however, 
are planning to take their places in the general economic life of 
the country. 



WHAT SHALL WS TBACH INDIAN HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN? 



(This article is a composite of some of the ideas discussed at 

a series of meetings held in Denver in May, 1938, in 

which a number of teachers, extension, health and administrative 

workers of the Indian Service took part.) 




Arts And Crafts- Class At Wheelock Academy, Oklahoma. 



What is our objective in the education of Indian children? 
There is agreement, probably, that it is to give them some under- 1 
standing of the world about them, to foster the ability to earn a 
living, to develop skills for achieving some control over their en- 
vironments, to substitute understanding for superstition and fear, 
to give them the strength and judgment to settle personal problems 
wisely, and to stimulate the growth of young people into men and 
women who face their tasks in the world maturely and with intel- 
ligent devotion. 



Bearing these ends in mind and thinking dn terms of high 
school boys and girls, what steps, then, should we take to make In- 
dian secondary school programs more functional in Indian communities 
- communities which, for the most part, live in poverty; communities 
which must make most of their living off the land for many years to 
come? 

One underlying factor governs all high school programs 
for young Indians: the wide variety of conditions and needs. 

There are a few reservations whose resources can support 
the entire population, provided the Indians make use of those re- 
sources; there are many which cannot possibly support their popula- 
tions on the land under present conditions; areas in which reserva- 
tions as separate units have ceased to exist; full-blood reserva- 
tions where the old ways of life are still deeply rooted; timber 
reservations; reservations whose key is successful irrigation; res- 
ervations where the intelligent handling of livestock is the only 
chance for self-support. 

And within reservations there are variations which must 
be taken into account by a school program which makes any attempt 
at honest preparation for life: full-blood and mixed-blood com- 
munities; English-speaking and non-English-speaking children; chil- 
dren who want to stay on the reservation; children who want to 
leave; children who do not know what they want, but who, in the 
realistic light of statistics, are mostly destined to stay in their 
home areas. 

More specifically, then, Indian children should learn in 
high school something of the resources of their reservations and of 
the ways in which these resources are used in making a living. They 
should learn something of the handling of money and the use of 
credit. They should gain facility in English and they should ac- 
quire social experiences which will help them to evaluate and deal 
understandingly with the many problems which will confront them as 
they learn ideas and habits which differ from the traditions and 
customs which they abide by at home. They should gain experience 
in good health practices, good techniques in farming and care of 
the land, in homemaking, in stock raising and marketing, and they 
should learn enough mathematics to carry out money dealings and 
practical problems with accuracy. They should know how their 
tribal affairs are managed, how tribal officers are chosen, how law 
and order ere enforced. They should know how their tribal affairs 
relate to the local and national government, and they should be 
prepared to take over more of the management of their individual 
and tribal affairs than has been accorded to their parents. Some 
of the Indian young people should learn how to do honest, salable, 



10 




and aesthetically 
fine crafts work 
as a possible 
means of supplenen- 
tary income, and 
some of them should 
he equipped with 
definite trade 
skills. 

In think- 
ing over these es- 
sentials, one ques- 
tion arises forci- 
bly: Should these 
techniques be 
worked into tradi- 
tional ^subjects, 
such -as geography , 
mathematics, and 
English; or should 
they be taught as 
the natural group- 
ings they are, and 
the old terminolo- 
gies discarded en- 
tirely? Many, at 
the conference felt 
that for the pres- 
ent, the tradition- 
al subject matter 
divisions should 
be maintained, but 
that they should 
Acetylene Welding On New Shop Building continue to be en- 

At Sherman Institute _In California,, riched by new ma- 

rfo sseitt o* as se'&s Ills i#r f*J$li« and M. ex ~ 
periences outside of r g^as|e^,^. T |i ,.j^jopiv:iq.us .that if .the -.end-results 

are kept in view and (f^fiej l^icljjjg^j^orcjgijjj^ imaginative ,' ~ and 
thorough, the method followed to "bring' |liels^eaperiences . and "tech- 
niques to Indian children is not the vital issue. 



Indian Service schools, as a matter of fact, in many areas 
have already broken with conventional and urban traditions in their 
effort to give Indian chilajy&Qaill^S&jiSllQfi) meet the world capably. 
Indian children have worked on school ranch projects and farm proj- 
ects miles away from the classr©-oj»i)dwing the school term; then they 
have returned to the classroom and' -translated ,?their experiences in- 
to, for example, English and mathematics* r~w 

11 



Another factor in shaping programs more specifically is 
the recognition of the economic future of the children of a given 
area. Vocational training is one thing; the chance children have 
to make use of their trades is another. 

The Indian Service has attempted, during the past year, 
to find out systematically what has happened to graduates of some 
of its high schools. The work is unfinished; hut preliminary re- 
sults show unquestionably that the majority of students stay on, 
or return to their reservations after graduation; in other words, 
while many Indian students have been trained for life on a wage 
basis - as bakers, carpenters, harness-menders, and the like - very 
few are able to secure work in their trades, but rather .return home 
to live on a subsistence basis, or on wages from relief or conser- 
vation work. 

Data show that the graduate of an Indian Service boarding 
school is better off economically than other Indians and that much 
Indian leadership is the product of the boarding school; neverthe- 
less, Indian Service vocational training in too many individual 
cases has proved to be without possibility of realization in the 
actual future life of the child. Indian Service schools, it would 
seem, should attempt to develop in children a rural, rather than a 
metropolitan, outlook on life; a realistic point of view on the 
part of the students as to where their best chances lie. Trained 
personnel who can give individual vocational guidance to children 
as they develop, as well as the present small staff of placement 
workers to help some of them secure outside jobs, are needed. In 
other words, it is the Indian Service's job to interest children 
in the type of living that is possible of achievement, to train 
them for it, and at the same time, to help outstanding children to 
go ahead to wider fields; to help place young people where they 
can earn a living, and to know what happens to them after they are 
placed. 

The answers to the question of what to teach cannot be 
charted. Granted that all agree as to these objectives, the pres- 
entation of subject matter to Indian young people and exposing them 
to experiences in actual situations are problems which teachers 
must work out for themselves. 



C07HR PHOTO (21 APH 

JToung Navajos learn modern techniques in protecting their 
land: class at Wingate Vocational High School in New Mexico, doing 
plant identification work in connection with computing the carrying 
capacity of a range area. 

12 



THE PLACB OF A NAVAJO DAY SCHOOL IN THE COMMUNITY 
By Earle F. Jenkins, Community Teacher, 
Cove Day School, Navajo Agency, Arizona 




Indi 



an Children in 

Garden 



the Flower 



How many white par- 
ents take a real interest in 
their children's school? And 
how many feel enough a part 
of it to work at and with the 
school as the Navajo parents 
do? 

At the Cove Day 
School, situated on the gray 
floor of a wide tree-filled 
canyon whose colorful walls 
rise sheer to the sky, the 
school helps the children's 
parents and is in turn helped 
by them. 



Industrious women come daily to sew, launder and bake. 
Men make furniture for their hogans in the school shop - cupboards, 
Closets, benches, wagon boxes, looms and wardrobes* At the forge, 
farm tools are mended and horses are shod. These things the Nav- 
ajo parents do for their own benefit. 

But the parents also do a number of things for the school 
Some of the work is in return for benefits received, such as cloth- 
ing for their children, oil-barrel stoves and lumber. But much of 
it is a voluntary expression 
of interest in this new cen- 
ter of their community life. 

Last year, during 
the summer and autumn, men 
with double teams, plows and 
scrapers worked for several 
weeks filling a network of 
washes and gullies with de- 
bris cleaned from the grounds 
and covered them with earth. 

They pulled stumps and re- _ . . . . _ _ . , 

Outdoor Ovens at Cove School 




13 



moved cords of brush. About seven acres 
of rye and sweet clover were planted and 
harvested. 

A croquet court and a flower 
"bed of 76 feet by 65 feet were graded and 
terraced with a retaining wall. A large 
root cellar was dug and roofed; an ash 
pit was dug and floored above. The yard 
was harrowed and reseeded to blue stem 
gra.ss during the rainy season. Our Nav- 
ajo neighbors also hauled and worked up 
the school ■ s supply of wood and made or 
repaired portions of the school bus route. 
They planted, cared for and harvested a 
bountiful crop of vegetables in the school 
garden. 



They made the playground equip- 
ment of see-saws, swings, trapeze and 
baseball backstop net and graded the vol- 
ley ball court and archery range. They 
wrecked a useless building on the school site and used the materi- 
als in new construction. About one-half mile of diversion drainage 
ditches have been dug; all the trees have been cared for and the 
grounds have been cleaned of growing weeds many times. 




This Navajo Woman Ib 

One of the School ' s 

Regular Patrons. 



During the assistants' summer 
vacations, two capable English-speaking 
Navajo women kept the school's kitchen, 
launary and sewing room open, maintain- 
ing our year of service to the community 
unbroken. An English-speaking neighbor 
acted as guide and interpreter for the 
teacher in field visits during this time. 

As the school is more than 
twelve miles from a trader, we in turn 
accommodate our neighbors in various 
small ways, by, for example, stocking 
fresh yeast for those who bake, writing 
orders from the school's copy of a mail 
order catalogue and writing letters for 
those who cannot write- themselves. 

Last winter the Indians. 
with their teams, plowed paths 




Harvesting Carrots 
In the School Garden 



Ik 





These two children, liv- 
ing more than two thousand 
miles apart, are both pupils 
in Indian Service schools. 

Above : A Papago girl 
from the Sells Agency, Arizona. 

Right: An Eskimo boy from 
Solomon, Alaska. 

Alaska photograph through 
courtesy of Mabel Nigh Nylen, 
Indian Service Teacher, formerly 
at Solomon Day School, Solomon, 
Alaska. 



through the drifted snow near 
the plant and to the neighbor- 
ing hogans . Last fall they 
hauled rocks and laid approx- 
imately three hundred feet of 
stone walks. They have laid 
four hundred feet of pipe for 
irrigation, harvested the gar 
den and again brought in and 
sawed, up a bountiful supDiy 
of wood. Our Navajo parents 
are good neighbors indeed. 

f. 

********** 




15 



THE LITTLE RED SCHOOLHOUSE : WHAT CH ILDREN FIVE TO NINE CAN DO 
By Ruth E. Leichliter, Teacher, Fort Sill Indian School, Oklahoma 



The photographs on the 
opposite page and those contained 
in this article show something of 
the work of the children who live 
in the Little Red Schoolhouse at 
the Fort Sill Indian School. These 
children range from five to nine 
years in age and are in the first 
and second grades. Here are some 
glimpses of their life. 

At 6:15 a.m. Patch, our 
faithful old cow, greets two of our 
young milkers, and stands patient- 
ly as they milk, one on each side. 
The children are watched by Brownie 
and Buck, the two calves; five 
sheep and three goats; a sow and 
her baby pigs; Long Neck and her 
brother geese; Squawk and her sis- 
ter guineas; and by Nancy, the 
Shetland pony. 



In the kitchen of the 
little farmhouse the girls strain 
the milk, scald the buckets and 
utensils and churn the butter. 
Cleaning, sometimes baking and cooking, dishwashing and scrubbing 
all have their place in the daily routine. Making pillows, quilt* 
(they quilt them too), rugs, tea towels, table covers and beaded 
work alBO have their place in the interests of the little girls. 

The children here at the Little Red Schoolhouse work a 
farm of five acres of land. Broom corn, oats, kaffir corn, cot- 
ton and cane are the principal products. These children cut their 
corn, stack it and haul it with a small team. 

Their garden yields vegetables which the girls can each 
summer. What they do not need they take to town and sell to the 
stores. Last winter they butchered "Wrinkle Nose", one of their 
hogs. They rendered lard, made sausage, cured the hnms and made 
soap out of the cracklings. 




Young Carpenters At Work 



16 



firJL 

fHfTC >' ft pM*^ 










^Xs 


; 






Ready For Market 



Making Sausage 





4 * v 



Taking Care Of Baby Lambs 



Cutting Grass 



17 



Work ! Pun, is what they say. When the children's ac- 
complishments are told, listeners have thrown up their hands and 
said, "I can't "believe it; they are too young." That is exactly 
what their parents said when we first began. Now they are proud 
and matter-of-fact about what their children do. 

The old-fashioned educator might say, "I don't see how 
the children learn anything. When do you teach school?" This is 
how: 

Three little children owned some chickens. They had 
some eggs to sell and when they found out that when the profits 
were divided each of them would receive only three cents, one of 
them said, "Too cheap; let's eat 'em." They ate the eggs. The 
next night there was a program on the campus and they needed two 
cents each for admission. "Gee, if we just didn't eat them eggs," 
they sighed. Any learning there? 

Their bees left the hive and flew away. "Why?" they asked. 
Any chance for learning there? 

Not perfectly by any means is the job done, but it is 
done well. They can't plow straight; they can't cut the broom 
corn as fast as we would like; they can't get the rows in the gar- 
den just right; they built a lopsided goat house; but what does it 
matter? The job is their job and 
they do it in their own childish 
ways. 

"But when do they learn 
to read, write, spell, figure, and 
speak English?" the visitors ask. 
Why did the bees leave the hive? 
Why does Nancy bite? Why didn't 
guinea eggs hatch? How do you cure 
meat? Why did the ducks die? Why 
do the grasshoppers eat our oats? 
What can we do about it? They read 
about these things for information, 
for pleasure. How else could they 
find out? 

One little girl working 
earnestly on a quilt block looked 
up and said, seriously: "You know, 
'Wobbly Knee" (the sow) has a house 
and eight babies, but she don't 
have no husband." 

Little Housekeepers 




18 





Jocko And Jerry After Their Bath 



A Young Poultry Owner 



. Marketing their vegetables, chickens, eggs, pecans, hogs, 
calves; weighing their butter, handling milk and vegetables; count- 
ing chickens, geese and guineas; keeping a breeding chart; learning 
by living and doing. Sometimes the children get cheated when they 
haven't counted correctly. What an opportunity for an arithmetic 
lesson that sticks I 

They telephone to the stores and ask prices; they order 
seeds, bees, equipment of all kinds; they write their own letters 
and mail them- They painted the picket fence a red, white, and 
blue combination that can be seen for miles. They sit around the 
fireplace and talk about the problem of dogs who catch their chick- 
ens; about the calf that is about to be born; the time to breed 
the pony. English and spelling? They get lots of it. And all of 
this comes not out of the book, but out of life. 




Bird Design From Zuni , New Mexico 

19 



INDIAN CHILDREN FROM THE SOUTHWEST 




Apaches - Arizona 

Right : A Navajo 
Child - Arizona 



Above: Three Young 

Santo Domingos 

On The Day School 

Wood-pile. 

United Pueblos Agency, 

New Mexico- 





Above: Paiute Children - Lovelock (C a rson Agency), Nevada 



20 



STUDENT RANCHERS : THE OGLALA HIGH SCHOOL CATTLE PROJECT , 
FINS RIDGg AGENCY . SOUTH DAKOTA* 



How to handle a horse, 
how to fall off a horse without 
being hurt, how to herd cattle, 
what and how much to feed cattle 
during the winter months, how to 
cook and clean up in camp, how 
to build and repair fences and 
corrals, how to care for new-born 
calves and doctor sick cattle, 
how to develop and conserve the 
range - the man that knows these 
skills is likely to be a success- 
ful rancher, good to his stock 
and good to his land. This sort 
of training is being given to 
Oglala Sioux boys in the Indian 
Service's Oglala Community High 
School on the Pine Ridge Reser- 
vation in South Dakota. 













* 








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Map of Range 


... V7 


Range Camp . ...^ Springs . 
Wells . . • O 


...CD 



by Philip Sauser, Tenth 
Grade Student at the Oglala 
Community High School.) 



This unique type of 
training is not an impulsive ex- 
periment on the part of the In- 
dian Service, but a carefully- 
thought-out part of its program 
to help the Pine Ridge Sioux to 
get on their feet economically- 
The cattle business, supplemented 
by the raising of feed and by 
subsistence gardens, is the only 
chance of these Indians for per- 
manent self-support; and to train 
their young people for the cat- 
tle business is a natural corol- 
lary of the larger program. 

This Sioux reservation 
has been, and potentially is 



♦Taken from a report by W. 0. Nicholson, Principal of Education, 
James W. Farrell, Stockman, Mary A. Walker, Teacher, and by stu- 
dents of the Oglala Community High School; also from an article by 
Philip Sauser, student. 



21 



again, fine cattle country. Its economic usefulness as range was 
impaired when it was broken up by allotment in the 'eighties, sub- 
sequently to become checkerboarded by white holdings. Up to the 
War, however, it was still largely cattle country and the Pine 
Ridge Indians themselves ran more than twenty-five thousand head 
on their own land. With the War boom in wheat, however, Indians, 
like whites, succumbed to the lure of quick profits. They sold 
their cattle, plowed much of their range and leased additional a- 
creage to whites. Some of it was sold outright. In 1933 there 
were only some 7,000 Indian-owned cattle on the Pine Ridge Reser- 
vation, grazing about 260,000 acres of their range. 



The Ranch House 




The Cattle 



During the past few years, a strenuous effort has been 
made by the Agency staff and by the Indians themselves to get land 
back into Indian use; to conserve the soil; and to develop once a- 
gain the livestock business for which Indians are well-suited. 
Their efforts have begun to show: In 1937 there were over 8,193 
Indian-owned cattle at Pine Ridge. 

The students' livestock project started in August 1936 
with six sections of land. Now twenty-five sections are being 



22 



leased from Indians in addition to the Agency reserve. The students' 
ranch carries a herd of 1,013 cattle, including 406 cows, 127 com- 
ing three-year-old heifers, 130 yearlings, 200 spring calves, 123 
steers, 20 five-year-old bulls and 27 bulls. The bulls are pure- 
bred Herefords. 

The herd camp is fifteen miles north of Pine Ridge, in the 
hills north of the Holy Rosary Mission. It is a real ranch plant, 
although a modest one, leased from James White Cow Killer. The 
range was rested during 1935; consequently there was a fine stand 
of buffalo, wheat and grama grass when the program began in 1936. 
CCC-ID workers built a dam, set up a windmill and dug a well. 



Jff * N m 




The Young Ranchers 
(W- 0. Nicholson, Prin- 
cipal of Education, and 
James W. Farrell, 
Stockman, Standing.) 




wr* 



Winter Feeding 




Six boys go out to the ranch for a week at a tine, from 
Monday morning through Saturday. Their school work is so arranged 
that by the end of the jeax each boy has had six weeks of ranch ex- 
perience. They help Shorty the cook and do the work around the 
camp; they oil the windmill; and they learn how to care for a herd 
of a thousand cattle. 

The boys have developed a spring, built a fence, a cor- 
ral, a hospital pasture for weak cattle and a maternity pasture. 
They learn the ticklish job of dehorning yearlings. 



23 



The daily routine is to gather the cattle from the can- 
yons and bring them into the feeding grounds, where, throughout the 
winter, they are fed on cotton seed cake. Each animal receives a 
pound a day. On this feed, plus the natural grasses, the cattle 
losses have teen less than one per cent. The hilly contours and 
the pines of the area give some protection from the wind and cold. 

The hoys anticipate their ranch work which, in the cold 
South Dakota winters is not always pleasant or easy, with avidity. 
The thermometer frequently drops to 32° helow during January and 
February, and the hoys turn out unfailingly at 7:00 a.m. to mount 
into cold saddles and ride all day. "So far," says Mr. James W. 
Farrell, the reservation stockman who supervises the hoys' ranch, 
"we have never had to turn a hoy hack because of shirking or bad 
behavior, and we have never had a boy back out when his turn came 
to go out to camp; in fact, sometimes they ask to go out to camp 
when it is not their turn. They are doing well at the work - there 
is no other business for which our Indian boys are better suited 
than the cattle business." 

On occasional Saturdays, Miss Newman, Miss Ward and Miss 
Roberts, home economics teachers at the school, have taken groups 
of girls out to the camp to cook and serve the boys' noonday din- 
ner. The girls have always produced the meal quietly and efficient- 
ly, and the incredible quantities of food eaten prove their ability. 

As far as practicable, the boys' school course is tied 
in with their ranch experience, in that their teacher, Miss Mary 
Walker, integrates their composition and reading work around land 
utilization and cattle-raising. 

This project is an example of the Indian Service's effort 
to give its young people an education which will be a real prepara- 
tion for life. Occasional critics have said that the present-day 
Indian Service educational policy is encouraging Indians to "go 
back to the blan- 
ket." Exactly 
the reverse is 
true. When chil- 
dren's school 
work is complete- 
ly divorced from 
their every-day 
life, when it 
deals with sub- 
jects and termin- 
ology with which 

The Range 




2k 



they have no experience, most of them, upon leaving school, are go- 
ing to shed this surface knowledge, and, after an unhappy period of 
inner conflict, go back to the ways in which they are rooted, 
■bringing back from school little of permanent value. This has been 
demonstrated time and again in the old off -reservation Indian Serv- 
ice boarding school system, in which long distances plus a strange 
curriculum plus alien standards of living and behaving served to 
cut the children off from Indian ways. But if children's work in 
school is built around their backgrounds, and deals with their as- 
sets and ways to develop them, ways to enrich and broaden their 
lives - then, the Indian Service believes, its schools will be ac- 
complishing their purpose. 

This program does not mean a curtailment of opportunity 
for the minority who want to prepare for professional and special- 
ized work, since these young people are being increasingly provided 
for through loans which enable them to attend colleges or profes- 
sional schools. Rather it means a shift of emphasis better to 
train the larger number of Indian young people for the opportunity 
that lies closest - a life on the land. 



PHOENIX TRACTOR SCHOOL 
Phoenix Indian School, Arizona- 



At the Phoenix 
Tractor School a limited 
number of young adult In- 
dians are given practi- 
cal experience in all 
phases of repair, rebuild- 
ing and maintenance of 
gas and diesel tractors 
and road machinery. The 
experiences are not 
limited to work in the 
school shops, but in- 
volve actual field work 
in which everything that 
can be done in the field 
to revive a tractor is 
done by the school crew. 
Young men trained in 

this instruction are finding themselves in demand because of their 

competence. 




25 



LITTLE HERDER IN THE SPRING 



For more than a year the Education Division has been pre- 
paring materials for use in Indian schools. One part of the proj- 
ect has been the preparation of reading materials which authenti- 
cally portray the present-day life of Indians, to be used as read- 
ing material at different age levels. 

Ann Nolan Clark, formerly a teacher at Tesuque Pueblo, 
has prepared a number of excellent studies of Pueblo and Navajo 
life which will be published during the current year. The follow- 
ing pages offer some quotations from "Little Herder in the Spring 1 ' , 
the first of a series of four simple readers of Navajo life which 
will be printed in both English and Navajo at the presses of the 
Phoenix Indian School. We believe that Mrs. Clark has caught to 
an unusual degree the spirit of living among the Navajo people. 



Morning 



Breakfast 



I stood 

Beside my Mother 

While my Father 

Said the Dawn Prayer. 

Then the gray tears 

On the sky's face 

Melted. 

The clouds pushed away 

And the Sun 

Smiled through them. 

Now it is gray again, 

But I cannot forget 

That when my Father spoke 

The Sun came 

And looked down 

Upon us . 



My Mother cooks food 
On the tin-can stove 
In the middle of her hogan. 

My Mother 

Makes kneel-down bread 

And coffee, 

And she cooks mutton ribs 

Over the coals. 

My Father 

And I 

Any my Mother, 

We sit on the floor 

Together, 

And we eat 

The good food 

That my Mother 

Has cooked for us. 



The Garden 



Beside my Mother's hogan door 

Between the sheep corral 

And the waterhole 

Is the small place 

That my Father has fenced 

To make a home 

For the sauash 



And the melons 
And the chili 
And the beans . 

My Father says in English, 
"This is the garden." 



26 



Sheep Corral 



Near my Mother's hogan 
Is the sheep corral, 
A bare, brown place 
Fenced with poles- 

There is a tree 

For shade . 

There is a shelter 

For lambs 

In the sheep corral • 

The sheep stand together 
In their corral • 
They stand close 
To each other. 
I think 



Sheep like to know 
That they are many. 

Sometimes 

I play that way. 

I play 

That there are many children 

All around me, 

All about me. 

When I am herding 

And I cannot see my Mother 

It is good 

To play 

That many children 

Stand together with me, 

And that all outside 

Is mj r corral- 



Thinking 



Earth, 

They are saying 

That you are tired. 

They are saying 

That for too long 

You have given 

Life 

To the sheep 

And The People. 

They are saying 

That the arroyos 

Are the hurts wp have made 

Across your face, 

That the moccasin track 

And the sheep trail 

Are the cuts we have given you. 

Earth, my mother, 

Believe me when I tell you, 

We are your children, 

We would not want to hurt you. 

I am only little, 

I cannot do big things, 

But I can do this for you. 



I can take my sheep 

To new pastures. 

I can take them 

The long way 

Around the arroyos, 

Not through them, 

When we go to the waterhole. 

This way 

Their little feet, 

Their sharp, pointed feet 

Will not make the cuts 

Across your face 

Grow deeper . 

This way 

The worn pastures 

Can sleep a little 

And grow new grass again. 

I can do this 
To heal your cuts, 
To make you 
Not so tired. 

.Earth my mother , 
Do you understand? 



27 



Lambs in Snow 



Today 

The cold comes 
In gray clouds 
Of blowing snow. 

The little lambs 

Stand close to their mothers 

They think 

The cold has come to stay. 

Yesterday the sky was blue 
And the Sun warmed the land. 

The lambs do not know 
That sometimes 
Cold days make mistakes 
And come again 
After they should have gone 
away. 



They do not know 

That tomorrow will be warm 

again. 
They have not been here 
Long enough 
To know these things 
And their mothers 
Have not told them. 

My Mother 

Is watching the lambs. 
She will not let them 
Get too cold. 

I think 

The mother sheep think 

That my Mother will help them 

With their babies. 



Clizzie, Clizzie 



The sheep know 
That the day is over, 
But Grandfather Goat 
Stays behind 



To push his whiskers 

High up in a tree 

For one last bite. 

Old Grandfather Clizzie, 

Clizzie. 



Goodnight 

Beautiful Mountain 
Looks so blue 
And so cold 
And so lonely 
Now that the Sun 
And the sheep 
And I 
Are going. 

If it were nearer to me 

And small 

I could bring it 

Into my Mother ' s hogan 

Under my blanket. 

I would not have to soy, 

Goodnight, 

Goodnight , 

Beautiful Mountain 

Goodnight. 



Ni&t 

Night is outside 

In his black blanket. 

I hear him 

Talking with the wind. 

I do not know him. 

He is outside. 

I am here 

In my Mother's hogan 
Warm in my sheepskin, 
Close to my Mother. 
The things I know 
Are around me 
Like a blanket, 
Keeping me safe 
From those things 
Which are strange. 

Keeping me safe. 



28 




29-30 



STORIES AND DHAWI.NGS 

By Indian Children 

There follow some twenty pages of stories and drawings 
by Indian children of various ages. Shortage of space made it im- 
possible to use more than a few, and many delightful contributions 
had to be omitted. Nothing shown here was written especially for 
publication in "Indians At Work": all of the material, with the 
exception of the drawing below, was gathered from regular class- 
room work. 




^ 



s~~-v~ 



"Aspen," A Drawing By Joe Evan Duran, Student At The 
Santa Fe Indian School, New Mexico. 



31 



EXCERPTS mOM " OUR MOLLY BOOK " , WRITTEN AND ILLUSTRATED BY THE 
PRIMARY CHILDREN . TONGUE RIVER BOARDING SCHOOL . BUSBY . MONTANA 

We have a new pet. We named her Molly. She is a toad. 

We built Molly's house. We got an apple box. We got 
screen wire. We put the wire on the box. 

How can we feed Molly? How can we water Molly? 

We sawed a hole in the box. We got a little bowl. We 
put water in the bowl. Guess what Molly did! She jumped into the 
bowl. She lay there. She was drinking. She does not drink like 
we do. We drink through our mouth. She drinks through her skin. 

Molly was still in the water bowl. The water is gone. 
She is surely fat today. She must be full of water. She is too 
fat to jump. 

Molly is mad today- She jumps and climbs. She wants to 
get out. Maybe she doesn't like our house. Maybe someone teased 
her. We let her out. She went to the toilet on our table. She 
i s naughty . 

Molly looks skinny. She may be hungry. We read about 
toads. Toads eat flies and bugs. They eat moths. They eat mos- 
quitoes. They eat gnats too- Maybe they eat grasshoppers. We 
caught bugs for Molly. We put dead grasshoppers in the box. She 
will not eat. Maybe she is lonesome. Boes she eat? We know she 
eats something. 

Molly has no teeth. We opened her mouth. How can she 
bite? We must chew our food. Molly does not chew. Some old 
people have no teeth. Maybe Molly is an old woman. 

Molly has a little pink tongue. It is like fly paper. 
Maybe that is how she catches bugs. 

Molly looks sad. Maybe she is lonesome. Maybe she is 
sick. Maybe she is sleepy. She is not happy. 

Molly is dead. We forgot Molly. We did not give her 
bugs every day. We did not give her water. Today Lester looked 



32 



in her house. She was dead. She is hard like a rock. Maybe she 
got too hungry. We are sorry. 

We got e little box. We got a paper handkerchief. Tie 
put it around Molly. We put Molly in the box. Everyone looks at 
her. The girls made a little cross. It says, "Molly died January 
11." We dig a grave. We bury Molly in the school -yard. 

We wish Molly had not died. We are lonesome for her. 
But she has gone. We want another toad. We like toads. We will 
not forget our pets again. 



EXCERPTS FROM " OUR HEALTH BOOK " 
Parker Day School, Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana 



Pulling Teeth The Eye Doctor 

The dentist put us in his chair. Dr. Montrose came to see us. 

He put a can near us. The nurse brought him. 

He stuck a needle in the gum. He looked at our eyes. 

Then he pulled the teeth. He turned the eyelid up. 

We spit in the can. He is going to make our eyes well, 

Scraping Eyes 

Four children went to the hospital. 
There were two doctors and two nurses. 
One nurse held our feet. 
One doctor held our arms. 
One doctor scraped our lids. 



A PIMA CHILD'S STORY 

I am a little Pima girl. I live at Santan . We eat meat 
and we drink milk. Over at our home the house is made from sticks 
and mud. There are so'me flowers around our house. We like to see 
the flowers growing. I have two brothers and four sisters. My 
father works on wood. He digs the wood out. My father gets his 
pay and takes us to town- We got a new wagon. I never ride in a 
wagon. I do not like to ride in a wagon. We got a cow and she has 
a baby. We call him "Bully." The cow gives us milk. In the 
morning we always drink milk. My little sister likes it. By Elsie 
Pablo - Pupil at the Phoenix Indian Sanatorium, Phoenix, Arizona- 



33 



MAKING BROOMS 



A Christmas Gift For Mother 

We made a broom for mother; 
We made it of broom straw, 
^e made a good broom. 
We broke the straw. 
We carried it back to school. 
We found a warm place to work. 
We liked to work outside. 
When we finished we had our 
picture made. 




"We peel the straw. We sit on 
the gravel pile. It was hot. 
We are working hard- We have 
fun." 



The primary children of the Pearl River Day School, Choc- 
taw Agency, Mississippi, wanted to make Christmas gifts for their 
mothers. They decided to make brooms. They all went out to gather 
the tall broom grass which grows in profusion in that part of Mis- 
sissippi and soon returned with an ample supply. Seated in the 
warm December sunshine, they set to work and soon had the grass se- 
curely fastened to the handle in the approved Choctaw manner. 






"Bessie Lee helps make a 

broom. She is working 

hard." 



The Children With Their 
Finished Brooms. 



3U 



excerpts from " the little red schoolhouse news " , 
written by primary children . fort sill indian school . oklahoma. 

Buck 

We have a new calf- Her name is Buck. Jerome got thrown 
off and he hurt his head. Buck don't like anybody. She chases us 
away when we go to play with her. We tried to rope her. She chewed 
the rope. We got mad and didn't give her any salt. Then she ran 
at us and we ran as fast as we could. I don't think we will like 
Buck very much. By Blandh Tahdoahn ippah . 



Chew 

We have a baby goat that is real mean. He climbs on the 
roof of the barn and he won't come down. When we play football he 
gets the ball and won't let us have it. He bucks us with his horns. 
Sometimes he stays at the door and we can't come out. One day he 
fell in the incinerator. He nearly burned himself all up. He 
bothers all the people. We are sorry for him. He is too bad. 



By Strudwick Tahsequah . 



Jocko And Jerry 



Jocko and Jerry came from South America. We found that on 
a big map. It is far away. It is hot there. Jocko and Jerry will 
be two years old soon. They are funny monkeys. They stole the 
turnip out of Velma's mouth. They pulled all the buttons off our 
teacher's sweater. They are a boy and girl. They hug necks lots 
of the time- They love each other. Jocko is greedy sometimes. He 
takes more to eat than Jerry. We love them both the same. Velma 
Apautv . 



Jocko And Jerry's Party 

Jocko and Jerry were two years old. We had a party for 
them. Rena and Dolores made a cake. They whipped the cream so 
long it got into butter. They were too ashamed to give Mr. Howard 
some cake. It was pretty good. Johnny and Strudwick made fudge. 
They couldn't read the recipe prood- They put too much sugar. It 
was chocolate sugar. We ate it and never laughed. The monkeys 
were very naughty. They jumped all over and tore the curtain- They 
grabbed a banana and ran. They wouldn't eat any cake. Jerry got 
the biggest apple and traded with Jocko. We played games and had 
some fun. The third grade sent the monkeys some peanuts. We 
weighed the monkeys too. They sxe getting very fat. Kay Attocknie . 



35 







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36 



FROM TEE " ATKA SEAGULL " , A TYPEWRITTEN SCHOOL NEWSPAPER 
ISSUED BY THE PUPILS OF THE ATKA SCHOOL , ALASKA . FEBRUARY 4, 1938 



Playing In The Snow 

I play in the snow. 
I slide on skis. 
Zip, zip, I go fast. 
Nannie is my sister. 
Nannie slides on 

a sealskin. 
Nannie goes zip, zip, 



too. 



My Father Comes From Trapping 

My daddy came home. 

He had his gun. 

My daddy shot seven 3eal . 

My mamma fried the 

seal's liver. 
I ate the liver with 

spuds . 



My Father Came From Amchi tka 

One early Thursday morning the MARTHA came to Atka. The 
MARTHA "brought trappers from Amchitka. It brought Attu people, too. 
My father came from Amchitka. He brought a little boat for his lit- 
tle girl. He made it from wood. It is not finished yet. It has 
no masts on it. She liked it. And she was happy when her father 
came home. She was not waked up that morning. Her father waked her 
up. She saw her father and she was happy and laughed. Her father 
told her he brought her a little boat. 

I made him some hot cakes and coffee. By_ Eva Prokopeuf f . 



A Story About Camping 

Once Annie and I camped with Annie's family. Annie and I 
went to fish for poggies. Sometimes we used to take care of babies 
and our mothers went to fish for poggies. 

Poggies are little fishes. He ones are brown with red 
spots. She ones are brown with light green spots. Sometimes we 
used to fry them or boil them. I like them fried best. Sometimes 
we got flounder. Sometimes we eat them raw or cooked. Flounder is 
flat fish. I like it, too. 



raw. 



We used to get mossberries and strawberries. I like them 
Sometimes I like them with jam. By_ Clara Snigerof f . 



37 



from the second and third at apes , 

STANDING ROCK COMMUNITY SCHOOL . NORTH DAKOTA. 



June is going to take a baby rabbit home Friday. I wish I had 
a mouse to get killed so I could have a rabbit, too. We will miss 
our rabb its. Kenne th . 



Mr. Bramlett took our rabbits' picture. All the little baby 
rabbits were afraid. They huddled up close to mother rabbit. They 
are Chinchilla rabbits. Lois. 



We had three mice in school, but one died and now we have only 
two because one died. The two that we have, dug the flowers up so 
all of our flowers died, too. Mary Margaret . 



RABBIT TRACKS 

Our rabbits make funny tracks. 

They do not print plainly. 

Why? 

Because the bottom of their feet is hairy. 

The rabbit sits all the time. 
It sits in the snow too. 

This hair on its feet keeps it from getting 
so cold. 

Our rabbits have long legs too. 
Why? 

He has to jump high and hop fast to get 
away from, animals and men. 

His two hind legs are longer and stronger. 
They have four toes on their hind feet. 
The front feet are shorter. 
Their front feet have five toes. 
Our rabbits rest on their hind feet when 
they sleep. 

Tongue River Boarding S chool . Bus by , Montana. , 
38 



NEWS ITEMS F ROM THE NUMBER 16 DAT SCHOOL . PINE RIDGE . SOUTH DAKOTA 
(Reprinted Prom the Porcupine Community News, Porcupine, South Dakota) 



Our Goat Feed 

When we get through milking the goats we feed them. We 
feed them grain and oil cake. We give a gallon pail full. We mix 
it together. We put this in the goats feed trough so the goats 
can eat it. A truck brought the feed to us. Bjr Rufus Kills Right, 
Grade 5. 

Our Calves 

One day a truck came from Pine Ridge. It brought our 
calves. We took them off. They were brought on December 2- There 
were twenty calves. After we took them off from the truck, we had 
to water them. We had to ride a horse to drive them to water the 
first time. Now we walk and drive them to water. We fed them some 
straw. We turned them out into the pasture. After a while we are 
going to keep them in the barn. _Bj£ Chris Lone Hill , Special Stu - 
dent . 

Branding The Calves 

We branded our calves on December 3. We branded them be- 
cause we don't want to lose them. My brand looks like this A_ . 
Roy Bergen's brand is like this & . Chris's brand looks like this 
*X- Roy Jealous' s brand looks like this«XJ. Harry's brand looks 
like this ^ . Richard's brand looks like this ,pR . 

We built a fire and put the irons in it to make them hot. 
We roped the calves and threw them down. When the iron was red hot 
we took it and burned our brand on the calf. All the club boys and 
two men, Mr. Lone Hill and Mr. Fielder, the district farmer, helped 
to brand the calves- Amos Lone Hill , Grade 6. 



Making Bread 

I baked bread this morning. I made it for noon lunch. 
First, I took a pan and put about three quarts of water in the pan. 
I put two yeast cakes in the water. I stirred the yeast cake in 
the water with my hands until they were dissolved. I put in one 
handful of salt and one- third cup of sugar. Next I put about 7-| 
quarts of flour in the water. I mixed it with my hands. I had to 
mix it hard so it will rise up. I let the bread rise. After this 
I made it into rolls. Before I made it into rolls I greased my 
hands so the dough would not stick to my hands- I let the rolls 
rise. When they were about twice the size I put them in the oven 
to bake. Jessie High Wolfe , Grade 6. 

39 



NAL-KA-CHU-SAK 



By Tom Pircheralrea Prince, Kotlik School, Alaska. 



A long time ago there was a large village by the sea. 
Toward the end of the houses there lived a baby. His father and 
mother were dead and his grandfather and grandmother kept him. They 
loved him very much and they taught magic to him. His name was Nal- 
ka-chu-sak. 

When he was old enough to hunt, he could hunt very well. 
When he became a young man he was very light and swift . When the 
rivers were frozen over, he could run across them and never break 
in or get his boots wet. He was a very fine hunter and could kill 
everything he saw. 

His grandfather told him many times that if he heard a 
strange animal at sea calling like this, "koo-wak-koo-wak" - not to 
answer it, for it would kill him. One winter day he went far out 
to sea. While he was traveling he heard a voice just as his grand- 
father told him, calling "koo-wak-koo-wak.' 1 Nal-ka-chu-sak wanted 
to see what it was, so he answered it. Soon he saw a big, big 
animal coming, so he ran toward a high iceberg and jumped over it. 
The animal was running very swiftly. Nal-ka-chu-sak waited on the 
other side of the big iceberg for him. When it didn't jump over 
the iceberg Nal-ka-chu-sak jumped on the iceberg and looked down. 
He saw the big animal was trying to get out from under the big ice 
cakes where he was stuck. So he went down and killed the animal. 
Then he went home and told his people what he had done. 

The next day he went down to sea with many men. When they 
reached that animal they could hardly pull it out of the water. When 
they skinned it, it had no flesh, only bones. 

Again when he reached his home his granfather said to him, 
"Next time it might kill you. I will tell you this, when you go out 
to sea very far, don't wait until it gets dark, but come home." 

One day Nal-ka-chu-sak went far out to sea. Night came. 
He did not return home. The moon was full and shining very bright- 
ly. As he was traveling he met a great giant man. So they traveled 
together. The giant said to him, "Go ahead of me." So Nal-ka-chu- 
sak went ahead of him, but he was watching the giant's shadow. The 
giant had a big spear in his hand. Just as he was going to throw 
the big spear at him, Nal-ka-chu-sak threw himself on the ice and 
the big spear went whistling over him. The giant said, "Oh, I almost 



UO 



killed youi" Then he fell too. He thought he had fooled Nal-ka- 
chu-8ak. Two times the giant did this. The third time when he 
threw his spear, Nal-ka-chu-sak ran after it and took the spear 
and killed the giant. The water was near them, so he threw the 
giant into the water and turned toward home. 



While he was walking, he suddenly saw the giant in the 
water before him. His head was down, only his legs were showing. 
Nal-ka-chu-sak pushed him into the sea again and went on. He had 
not walked far when again he came to the giant. This time, half 
his body was sunk. Nal-ka-chu-sak said to himself, "I think this 
giant will kill me," so he began to take off the giant's clothing. 
On his body he found an ivory necklace. Each bead was a little 
man- Nal-ka-chu-sak put them into his bag and went home. 



to. 



His grandfather said, "Now you can go everywhere you want 
You can kill everything. Nothing can hurt you." 



This is a very real true story. Every time the giant 
killed a man he made a small ivory image and put it on his string 
and wore them. Ihere were many, many tiny ivory men on his necklace. 




Ui 



MY FAMILY HISTORY 
By James and Nadie Ironmaker - Ages 14 and 12 
Rocky Boy's Reservation, Montana 



We are full-blood Indians. Our tribe is a mixture of 
Chippewa, Cree and Blackfeet. Both our father and mother are dead. 
Our father left us some horses when he died. Nadie has five horses. 
I have two. Nadie is twelve years old. She lives with our moth- 
er's family, Mr. and Mrs. Chief Goes Out. Ruby Chief Goes Out has 
written the family history of Mr. Chief Goes Out. I will write a 
history of our father's family, the Chippewa family. I am fourteen 
years old and live with my grandmother Mrs. James Chippewa, Sr. 

My great -great-grandmother was a Blackfeet woman. When 
she was young the different tribes had war among themselves . Once 
the Crees and Blackfeet were fighting and my great-great-grandmoth- 
er was taken by the Cree Indians. Her name was Na-ta-go-jis . That 
is a Blackfeet word which means God Smoker. 

When my great-great-grandmother grew up she married a 
Cree Indian. His name was Tortoise. They lived in Canada. My 
great-great-grandfather hunted animals for food and my great-great- 
grandmother tanned the hides and made some of them into clothes . 

My great-grandmother's name was Young Maiden. She married 
a Cree Indian named Cloud. They lived in Canada also, near Medi- 
cine Hat. My great-grandfather got food by hunting and my great- 
grandmother tanned leather and learned to do nice bead-work. 

My grandmother's father died when she was ten years old. 
She lived part of the time with the Blackfeet Indians. My great- 
grandmother used to work hard to support her family for she had 
four children. She used to polish horns and sell them. That was 
when my grandmother learned to make beaded bags- She is living 
on the Rocky Boy's Reservation now and is one of the best beaders. 
She can also tan nice leather. 

My grandmother married a Chippewa Indian. His Indian 
name was First Sitting Man. The white people called him Burma-toe. 
My grand-parents used to travel with Rocky Boy. They came here 
with him when the Indians got this land. 

My father's name was Ironmaker. He died when I was two 
years old. I have always lived with my grandmother and my uncle 
whose name is James Chippewa- My grandmother's name is now Mrs. 
James Chippewa Sr. We live on a place and farm and raise cattle 
and horses. My grandmother still makes bead-work to sell. 



112 



FROM THE ROCKY BOY'S RESERVATION IN MONTANA 



The Roundup 

When the cattlemen have a roundup they all get together 
and make plans • They always have the roundup in the fall . Every 
man has his own brand. In the fall the men put their own brands on 
their cattle. Every roundup there is a bunch of cattlemen (cowboys) 
that round up the cattle . The cowboys have a cook that cooks for 
them. 

They keep the cattle in corrals near the forest camp. 

The cattlemen have just had a roundup this fall. They 
branded their cattle and separated those that were to be sold from 
those that were to be kept. 

The cowboys sent the cattle down to Box Elder to be shipped 
to St. Paul. St. Paul is where we sell our cattle most of the time. 

By Ida Sangrey . Age 14 . 



Uncle And The Spider 

This story is a true story but very hard to believe. The 
story I'm going to write is about my uncle and a spider. 

Long ago, people used to believe in dreams. My uncle went 
out to dream some place. He climbed a high cliff and stayed up there 
a week. He started to get hungry and thirsty. When he yas going to 
climb down he couldn't make it. Finally he fell asleep from exhaus- 
tion. He dreamed of a spider telling him that he would take him 
down. But this spider told him, "You must not open your eyes until 
you touch ground." When my uncle woke up he was on the ground. He 
walked home and told his story. People believed in those things at 
that time, so they believed him. 

By Ida Sangrey , Age 14. 



U3 



AN ESKIMO SOME . AS DRATO BY GEORGE A. AHGUPUK 

The scene below was drawn by George A- Ahgupuk, a young 
Eskimo of Shishmaref , Alaska. George was educated in the Federal 
schools of the Territory; then, because of a tuberculous hip, he 
spent some time in the. hospital, where the head nurse found him 
sketching on anything that came handy. She encouraged his interest 
and equipped him with pen, ink and proper paper. Most of George's 
drawings today are done on sealskin, as was the one reproduced be- 
low, or on three-ply wood. 




The drawing above shows a typical scene of an Eskimo 

traveling with a dog sled. The human figure is dressed in 

a hooded parka and wears Eskimo boots with waterproof oogruk 

(hide of the large bearded seal) soles. 



44 



STUDENT'S MURAL DEPICTS OLD-TIME SIOUX GATHER IMG 




The painting shown above was done by Andrew Standing Sol- 
dier, eighteen-year-old Sioux student, on the walls of the Arts and 
Crafts Building at the Oglala Community High School at Pine Ridge, 
South Dakota. 



Andrew has had practically no instruction in art work, 
having worked and supported his mother almost as much time as he 
had been in school. Andrew's mural depicts a round-up of the Og- 
lala Sioux about forty 
years ago. He obtained 
the descriptive mater- 
ial upon which to base 
his drawing by talking 
with the old men, and 
his knowledge of horses 
from daily observation. 

The picture 
on the left shows An- 
drew at work on the 
mural. 







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U5 



THE NEWS FROM MEDICINE BOW DAY SCHOOL AND POTATO CREEK COMMUNITY 

(From The March 1938 Issue Of The Oglala Community High 
School Paper, Pine Ridge, South Dakota.) 



On February 3 we had a community meeting here at Medicine 
Bow Day School and many people were here . We all had a dinner at 
noon and then Charles Under The Baggage, Sr., taught the school 
boys and girls about the Tribal Code. He taught us in the Indian 
language so the little boys and girls could understand him, too. 
Then two Junior Judges came from Kyle and they taught the Tribal ■ 
Code to the school boys and girls and to the men and women, too. 
The names of these two Junior Judges are Hobart Two Crow and Pete 
Bull Bear. Frank Apple, the representative from Kyle came out 
with them too, and he drove the car for the two Junior Judges. 



GOATS 
I will tell you about our goats. We have some goats at 
school here and all the goats have kids now. Some of the goats 
have twins. Phillip Swimmer, Russell Under The Baggage, Francis 
Long Soldier and some of the other boys 1 goats got twins. That's 
all for goat news. 

(From Potato Creek News , May 1938, published by the Medi- 
cine Bow Day School, Potato Creek, Pine Ridge, South Dakota.) 



SPRING- WORK ON THE NAVAJO 

When I was out of school here, I went on my spring work. 
My brother and I went out in the cornfield to hoe the corn. We 
stopped working right after noon. We ate our lunch then we went on 
working. In the evening we went back home. 

The next morning my brother and my uncle went to work again. 
I herded the sheep. In the afternoon it was very hot. I went under 
the tree to rest. I was carrying my bow and arrow. Soon I heard 
a noise. I eot up. I saw a fox- I yelled and howled. In the eve- 
ning we missed a little lamb. 

My brother and I were going to find that lamb . I got up 
on a hill. There I just saw some wool on the ground. I went over 
there The fox had eaten the lamb . We hoped the fox did not say 
"Thank You" for the lamb he had eaten. 

By Zeth Bisman, Shonto Day .School . From " Ha-Ni " ; Tuba 
Boarding School, Arizona. 

kG 



CHILDREN'S STCRIES FROM SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA 



Many boats brought fish eggs from Craig. Fish eggs are 
herring eggs. People put branches from trees in the water. They 
leave them in the water one night. The fish eggs stick to the 
branches. Fish eggs are good to eat. By Fl oyd Frank , First Grade , 
Hydaburg , Alaska . 

In the spring my father trolls. A boat from Juneau or 
Tyee buys the bush. In the fall he cuts wood, hunts for deer, to 
put in jars for the winter. He shoots ducks and seals. He can 
sell the seal noses. My mother keeps the house clean. She cooks 
our meals on time. She sews and washes clothes. I help my mother 
by carrying in water and wood- I would like to be a hunter and a 
fisherman when I grow up. By George Brown, Fourth Grade , Angoon, 
Alaska . 

You have to look for a hole in the rock before you can 
find a devil fish. You have to get some chewing tobacco and spill 
a box at the entrance. When the creature tastes the tobacco he 
gets out of the hole in a hurry. Then you can grab it and take it 
home for dinner. By Charlie Fawcett , Fift h Grade, Metlakatla , 
Alaska . 

This summer my mother worked in the cannery. She told 
me about the work. She was a "slimer." She had to use a knife. 
She cut off the heads of the fish. The people are very happy to 
work in the canneries in the summer. The children take care of 
their little brothers and sisters. Some work piling cans and 
putting them in boxes. By Elizabeth James , Fifth Grade , Hoonah , 
Alaska - 

In the spring the people go to Glacier Bay and get some 
seals and sea gull eggs . They kill the seals for the skins and 
dry them in the sun. In the spring they go trolling for fish too, 
and sell them. 

In the summer they dry fish and pick berries to put them 
in jars for winter. They shoot ducks, geese, deer and bear in the 
fall . Sometimes they dry the meat and put it in seal grease to 
keep for winter. In Mary they get herring eggs from Sitka to sell 
here. In winter the men go trapping. By Sarah Williams , Sixth 
Grade , Hoonah , Alaska . 



U7 



FROM NAVAJO CHILDREN AT TOADLENA . NEW MEXICO 



S i 1 vcr 3 mi thi ng 

Some Navajo men are silversmiths. That is the way they 
get their money. First they build a fire to melt the silver in the 
pot. The silver is melted in ten minutes. Then the silversmith 
puts in some minerals that he gets from the store. He puts them in 
a cup to melt. Then he mixes it with something. It looks like 
salt. It is very white. He mixes it and then puts it in place. 
Next he gets his tools. First he uses pliers and hammer. He holds 
it with the pliers and hits it with the hammer. He makes many 
rings and other things. That is the way he gets his money. By- 
Bill Denetyazziebetcilly , Grade Six. 



A Nava.i o Cradle 

A Navajo cradle is made out of the pine tree. After it 
is made, they put deerskin about an inch wide on both sides. Then 
they put white cloth on the cradle and another one over the cradle 
to keep the flies off the baby. The cradle is about three feet 
long and one foot wide. The mother carries her baby in her arms, 
and sometimes on her back just like the Indians did long ago- By 
John Arthur , Grade Five - 

The Navajo Home 

The Navajo home always faces east. People do it that way 
because the wind blows so hard from the north. If it does not face 
the east, when we have a fire the wind blows so hard that our home 
will burn. Our home is always warm inside this way. By Cora Ben 
Gould Yazzie, Grade Five- 




A ZUNI POTTERY DESIGN 

Drawn By A Student In The 

Zuni Day School, Zuni , New Mexico. 



48 



UTE CHILDREN LEARN RANGE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES FIRST-HAND 



Richard B. Mlllin, Regional Forester in the Indian Service, 
sends in the following article by a school child at the Whiterocks 
School at the Uintah and Ouray Agency in Utah. Junior Range Examin- 
er Henry F. Wershing and Mr. Thomas L. Carter, Forest Supervisor, 
took a group of children on a trip to show them something of good 
range management practices. The following description of the trip, 
by Berneice Pawwinnee, appeared in "The Ute" , the Uintah and Ouray 
Agency publication. 

A Trip To The Range 

Wednesday morning at 9:30 a.m. all the 6th, 7th, 8th 
and 9th grades took a trip with Mr. Carter and Mr. Wersh- 
ing to the mountains to study about the range. 

The first stop we came to showed us that the land 
was overgrazed. It hardly had any grass. There was 
grass only in a few places. The second stop we came to 
showed us that it was a little better than the first one 
we saw. We learned that the wheat grass, Indian rice 
grass and blue grama grass were the most important grasses. 
The third place where we stopped wasn't grazed. It had 
plenty of grass there. The reason why the cattle didn't 
graze on this land was because the hill was too steep, it 
was too rocky and was too far away from water. The fourth 
stop we came to proved that cattle can graze uphill, even 
if it is rocky or steep, if they can get water. They go 
up the hill to graze and come down for water . 

After we had eaten our lunch, we started again. It 
was almost one o'clock then. We stopped at a place where 
Mr. Wershing showed us how wheat grass grew. He said be- 
fore 1936 eleven new plants grew; in 1937 nineteen; and 
in 1938 there were twenty-four . He d'ig up one of the 
plants to show us that it reproduces its own plant. He 
said there were two ways of reproducing wheat grass . By 
seed and by its own roots- A single plant can produce as 
many as four or more plants a year by its roots. 

The way it grows is that the roots spread out under 
the ground and about four plants grow on that root . They 
come up through the ground while still on that root and 
soon the root breaks in two and it makes a new plant . I 
learned quite a lot about the range and the three important 
grasses. I enjoyed my trip, and we hope to go again some 
other time. 



U9 



THE PRACTICE COTTAGE! PLAN 

By Frances Clifford, Student, Oglala Community 

High School, Pine Ridge, South Dakota 



The practice cottage plan was put into effect here to 
teach the boys and girls the work, business and fun that may be 
had in carrying a real home . 

The girls' practice cottage at Kyle has been in opera- 
tion for about a year. Four girls and one teacher occupy this 
house. Last year there were only three girls and a woman teach- 
er in the girls' cottage and three boys and a man teacher in the 
boy's cottage. All ate in the girls' cottage; so they agreed to 
help one another with all their work. 

The girls' work is divided into four parts. The manager 
plans the meals, keeps track of all money spent for the cottage, 
is the hostess at the table and is the manager in general. The 
cook does all the cooking. After she has cooked for a week, she 
goes to the school kitchen to get better training in cooking; 
then she stays at home a week and does all the cooking there. She 
also helps in many other ways to improve her home. The assistant 
cook helps the cook all she can. The housekeeper does all the 
cleaning and keeps up the house. She also makes the furnishings, 
such as curtains and sofa pillows for the home. 

Many Indian dishes, such as dried meat, wasna, cherry 
wojapi and others are served at this practice cottage so the 
knowledge of Indian recipes will be kept in the tribe. We also 
serve dishes like those the white people eat. 

Light bread is made with dry yeast because most of the 
Indian homes are quite far from town and yeast should be kept on 
ice or in a very cool place. 

The teacher at the cottage uses the rations from the 
school, supplemented by what she and the students care to provide. 
The girls are taught how to make very appetizing dishes from them. 

All grades from the fourth through the ninth go to this 
cottage. They group themselves accordingly. Each group has two 
chances to live at the cottage in one year. In this way the teach- 
er has a chance to note their improvement and can then give the 



50 



girls advanced work. Miss Galloway, the home economics teacher 
there, has made record sheets for each girl who lives in the prac- 
tice cottage. 

In the evening after all the work is finished, the boys 
and girls, with their cottage teachers, meet in the living room 
of the girls 1 cottage. At this meeting all problems of discipline 
are settled which come up at the practice cottage. The problem of 
smoking, which is usually quite difficult, was worked out very 
easily. The girls who smoke may do so if they smoke like ladies 
and provide their own ash trays and smoke in the living room. 

Leisure time at this practice cottage is spent in many 
different ways. The boys and girls read, dance, sing and make 
candy. Once a week they have a party at the cottage. 

All the babies that have stayed at the cottage were nurs- 
ing babies. The mother stays at the cottage too, but she is re- 
lieved of all care of the baby except at feeding times. The girls 
care for this baby by sewing for it, bathing it and keeping its 
regular sleeping hours . 

The boys and girls learn to plan their work ahead of 
time; they execute or really do the work; then they evaluate or 
criticize their work with the idea of improvement. By so doing, 
they learn self-expression. They talk over in an informal way 
what they do and what they wish to learn at the practice cottage. 

So effective were the lessons learned by last year's oc- 
cupants of the cottage that a couple, Rufus Two Crow and Lollie 
Pawnee Leggins, were married not long ago. Soon Lollie will come 
back to the cottage to take special training to help her in her 
new home. From the Oglala Community High School newspaper. 







g^aila!££i! 




A Pueblo Village 
Drawn By Ruf ina Vigil 



51 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



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